Rutland is a county of England. At the centre of the county is the large reservoir Rutland Water, it is an important nature reserve serving as an over wintering site for wildfowl and is a breeding site for ospreys.
The north-western part of the county of Rutland was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in the Domesday Book. In 1584 Uppingham School, one of the earliest "public" but actually private schools of England, was founded in Rutland with a hospital, or almshouse, by Archdeacon Robert Johnson. The original 1584 Schoolroom still exists in Uppingham churchyard. The original hospital building is now incorporated in the School Library. The first recorded Uppingham schoolboy was Henry Ferne from York, who was Chaplain to Charles I.
Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England, derived from the traditional county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is at Belvoir Castle.
In the 1970s, the creation of Empingham Reservoir, usually known as Rutland Water, flooded a large section of the county. By surface area it is the largest reservoir in England, but by capacity it is exceeded by Kielder Water.
The castle in Oakham is little more than an old Great Hall, but features a large collection of horseshoes. These have been presented over the years by royalty, and some are significantly more elaborate than others. The horseshoe features prominently on the county coat of arms.