Birdoswald Fort is a Roman fortress located on Hadrian's Wall, near Gilsland in Cumbria.
Birdoswald, once known as Banna, is situated in a commanding position overlooking the river Irthing. It was built in AD122 after a wooded spur was cleared, then added to Hadrian's Wall when it was rebuilt in stone.
The fort was occupied by auxiliaries Romans until about AD410, although Roman descendents still occupied the fort well into the 5th century. The fort was reoccupied in the Middle Ages and was the target of raids by border reivers in the 16th century.
First excavated in the 1850s, Birdoswald has produced more evidence for the phases of building of Hadrian’s Wall than any other fort.
Channel 4's Time Team excavated the area between the fort and the escarpment in January 2000, they found signs of a settlement, although most of the settlement may have fallen over the cliff due to erosion.
Today the Birdoswald is operated by English Heritage which includes a visitor centre.